La légitimité
en pratique

Les principes de la légitimité

Diversité de dimensions

Diversité temporelle

Diversité des niveaux

Diversité d'audience

Papiers de recherche sur la légitimité

Auteur(s) Année de publication Revue Mots Clés
1- Organizational Legitimacy and the Liability of Newness
Singh, Jitendra V Tucker, David J House, Robert J 1986 Administrative Science Quarterly Legitimacy, liability of newness, internal and external dimensions
Résumé : This study explores whether external legitimacy or internal coordination processes more prominently underlie the liability of newness, the higher propensity of younger organizations to die, in a population of voluntary social service organizations. The findings show more support for the external legitimacy than for the internal coordination argument. Indicators show that forms of external legitimacy – the acquisition of a Community Directory listing, the acquisition of a Charitable Registration Number, and board size at birth – all significantly depress organizational death rates, whereas most internal organizational changes are unrelated to death rates. The exception is chief executive change, which lowers death rates, suggesting that chief executive turnover may be adaptive. The lack of institutional support experienced by young organizations is one important reason underlying the liability of newness in organizations?
Lien :
2- Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches
Suchman, Mark C 1995 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy
Résumé : This article synthesizes the large but diverse literature on organizational legitimacy, highlighting similarities and disparities among the leading strategic and institutional approaches. The analysis identifies three primary forms of legitimacy: pragmatic, based on audience self-interest; moral, based on normative approval: and cognitive, based on comprehensibility and taken-for-grantedness. The article then examines strategies for gaining, maintaining, and repairing legitimacy of each type, suggesting both the promises and the pitfalls of such instrumental manipulations.
3- Organizational Legitimacy under Conditions of Complexity: The Case of the Multinational Enterprise
Kostova, Tatiana Zaheer, Srilata 1999 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy, spillover, MNE
Résumé : We examine organizational legitimacy in the context of the multinational enterprise (MNE). After discussing three types of complexity (of the legitimating environment, the organization, and the process of legitimation) that MNEs typically face, we explore their effects on MNE legitimacy. In particular, we distinguish between the legitimacy of the MNE as a whole and that of its parts, and we develop propositions that include issues of internal versus external legitimacy and positive and negative legitimacy spillovers.
Lien :
4- Beyond Survival: Achieving New Venture Growth by Building Legitimacy
Zimmerman, Monica A Zeitz, Gerald J 2002 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy, new venture, threshold
Résumé : In this article we argue that (1) legitimacy is an important resource for gaining other resources, (2) such resources are crucial for new venture growth, and (3) legitimacy can be enhanced by the strategic actions of new ventures. We review the impact of legitimacy on new ventures as well as sources of legitimacy for new ventures, present strategies for new ventures to acquire legitimacy, explore the process of building legitimacy in the new venture, and examine the concept of the legitimacy threshold.
Lien :
5- Legitimating first: Organizing activities and the survival of new ventures
Delmar, Frédéric Shane, Scott 2004 Journal of Business Venturing Legitimacy, new venture, survival
Résumé : The process by which firm founders create new organizations is of considerable interest to evolutionary theorists and entrepreneurship researchers. This article tracks the life histories of 223 Swedish new ventures started between January and September 1998 by a random sample of firm founders. We explore the effect of legitimating activities on the hazard of disbanding and the transition to other firm organizing activities during their first 30 months of life. We find that undertaking activities to generate legitimacy reduces the hazard of venture disbanding and facilitates the transition to other organizing activities.
Lien :
6-The life cycle of an internet firm: Scripts, legitimacy, and identity
Drori, Israel Honig, Benson Sheaffer, Zachary 2009 Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice Legitimacy, identity
Résumé : We study, longitudinally and ethnographically, the construction of legitimacy and identity during the life cycle of an entrepreneurial Internet firm, from inception to death. We utilize organizational scripts to examine how social actors enact identity and legitimacy, maintaining that different scripts, both contested and consent-oriented, become the source of action for acquiring legitimacy and creating organizational identity. We show that scripts enable entrepreneurs and other social actors to invoke a set of interactions within and outside the organization. Scripts construct values and interests, form social bonding and consented actions, and eventually shape and reshape the individual and institutional contexts of identity and legitimacy. We found that the strategic action of organizational members in pursuing and enacting their preferred scripts depends on their position and role in the organization. We observed that the institutionalization of simultaneously competing scripts created a path-dependent process leading to organizational conflict and eventual failure.
Lien :
7- Toward a Theory of Social Judgments of Organisations: The Case of Legitimacy, Reputation, and Status (étudié dans le Workshop 1)
Bitektine, Alex 2011 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy, reputation, status, social evaluation
Résumé : The proposed theory extends research on cognitive and sociopolitical legitimacy, reputation, and status by advancing an evaluator’s perspective on these concepts as forms of social judgment, each addressing a different evaluator’s question about the organization. I describe how evaluators make their social judgments under conditions of bounded rationality and how cognitive and social factors influence this process. The proposed process model of social judgment formation highlights the complex and nondeterministic nature of this process.
Lien :
8-Legitimation of New Ventures: A Review and Research Programme
Tost, Leigh Plunkett 2011 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy, judgement
Résumé : I develop a theoretical framework that specifies the content underlying legitimacy judgments and a model of the process by which these judgments develop and change. I argue that individual-level legitimacy judgments are based on evaluations that fall along three dimensions (instrumental, relational, and moral). I specify three stages of the legitimacy judgment process and two modes by which judgments may be developed or revised (evaluative and passive). I end by discussing implications for the study of institutional change.
Lien :
9- Legitimation of New Ventures: A Review and Research Programme (étudié dans le Workshop 1)
Überbacher, Florian 2014 Journal of Management Studies Legitimacy, new venture
Résumé : Research on how new ventures ( NVs) achieve legitimacy is fragmented and rests on taken-for-granted assumptions that require problematization. Following a systematic literature review, I identify five distinct perspectives on NV legitimation: an institutional perspective, a cultural entrepreneurship perspective, an ecological perspective, an impression management perspective, and a social movement perspective. After comparing and contrasting these perspectives, I synthesize them into a generative and integrative typology. Based on this typology, I develop a new research programme. The programme widens the extant scholarship agenda by challenging its shared assumptions and contributes to further integration of the literature by building bridges between perspectives.
Lien :
10- The “macro” and the “micro” of legitimacy: Toward a multilevel theory of the legitimacy process (étudié dans le Workshop 1)
Bitektine, Alex Haack, Patrick 2015 Academy of Management Review Legitimacy, multi level construct
Résumé : The distinction of macro- and microfoundations of institutions implies a multilevel conceptualization of institutional processes. We adopt the evaluators’ perspective on legitimacy to develop a multilevel theory of the legitimacy process under ideal-type conditions of institutional stability and institutional change, and we explore the dynamics of institutional change—from destabilization of the institutional order to return to stability in legitimacy judgments expressed by evaluators. We argue that through the process of institutionalization, legitimacy judgments of evaluators are subjected to social control and describe an institutional stability loop—a cross-level positive-feedback process that ensures persistence of legitimacy judgments and stability of the institutional order. Viewing institutional stability as a state of suppressed microlevel diversity, we draw researchers’ attention to “silenced” legitimacy judgments and to judgment suppressor factors that induce evaluators to abstain from making their deviant judgments public. The removal of such factors leads to the (re)emergence of competing judgments in public communications and creates an opportunity for institutional change. We explore competitive strategies that address propriety or validity components of legitimacy and describe the process through which organizational fields return to a state of institutional stability.
Lien :
11- Measuring individual legitimacy perceptions: Scale development and validation (étudié dans le Workshop 3)
Alexiou, Kostas Wiggins, Jennifer 2018 Strategic Organization Legitimacy, measure
Résumé : To fully understand legitimacy as a complex construct, it is necessary to capture both collective perceptions and individual judgments. Much of the empirical research on legitimacy has focused on measuring the collective perceptions of groups of evaluators or critical institutions. This research develops and validates a psychometric measure of individual perceptions of pragmatic, moral, and cognitive legitimacy. Across seven studies, we demonstrate consistent reliability and scale structure, as well as convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity. We further show the generalizability and robustness of the measure across a variety of organizations and industries. This measure will advance empirical research on legitimacy by enabling researchers to capture the perceptions of individual evaluators directly and permit the comparison of results across studies.
Lien :
12-Legitimacy(étudié dans le Workshop 2)
Suddaby, Roy Bitektine, Alex Haack, Patrick 2016 Academy of Management Annals institutional theory, social norms, cognition
Résumé :
Lien :
13-The complexities of new venture legitimacy (étudié dans le Workshop 1)
Fisher, Greg 2020 Organization Theory audience diversity, configurations, entrepreneurship, legitimacy thresholds
Résumé : For entrepreneurs, establishing and maintaining new venture legitimacy is a complex endeavor. Various factors complicate this process, including issues of optimal distinctiveness, audience diversity, market category evolution, and multiple legitimacy thresholds. Moreover, the establishment and maintenance of new venture legitimacy is an intricate process that unfolds over time. In this essay, I review and integrate prior work on new venture legitimacy not only to highlight these complications, but also to consolidate insights, theoretical nuances, and empirical observations to describe what happens when entrepreneurs confront multiple complications at the same time. In so doing, I propose that configurational approaches provide a valuable theoretical perspective to enhance knowledge related to new venture legitimacy. I also highlight exemplar studies that have adopted these perspectives, accounting for multiple new venture legitimacy complications in a single analysis. This provides a basis to understand recent advances in the new venture legitimacy literature, and inspires and opens up new research opportunities for further exploration.
Lien :
14- Gaining Legitimacy by Being Different: Optimal Distinctiveness in Crowdfunding Platforms (étudié dans le Workshop 19 Nov. 2021)
Taeuscher, Karl Bouncken, Ricarda Pesch, Robin 2021 Academy of Management Journal legitimacy threshold, optimal distinctiveness
Résumé : How do new ventures gain legitimacy and attract critical resources? An increasing body of cultural entrepreneurship research has highlighted an “optimal distinctiveness” trade-off: new ventures need to be distinctive from their peers to stand out, yet distinctiveness counteracts the attainment of organizational legitimacy. In this paper, we challenge the underlying assumption that distinctiveness necessarily counteracts the attainment of legitimacy and propose that distinctiveness can become a source of legitimacy. This proposition matters because it fundamentally alters the relationship between distinctiveness and resource acquisition from certain audiences. We build on these theoretical arguments to examine new ventures’ resource acquisition from crowdfunders, one of the most important audiences for new ventures. Analysis of 28,425 crowdfunding campaigns across 39 market categories strongly supports our arguments, showing that higher levels of distinctiveness lead to superior crowdfunding performance. We further demonstrate that the legitimating effect of distinctiveness intensifies under the absence of alternative sources of legitimacy. Our study contributes by uncovering a new mechanism and three contingencies for the “optimal distinctiveness” trade-off.
Lien :
15- The Legitimacy of Sustainability Standards: A Paradox Perspective (étudié dans le Workshop 19 Nov. 2021)
Haack, Patrick Rasche, Andreas 2021 Organization Theory Sustainability standards, Paradox theory, diffusion
Résumé : Sustainability standards have proliferated widely in recent years but their legitimacy remains contested. This paper suggests that sustainability standards need to cope with an important but unexplored paradox to gain legitimacy. While standard setters create low entry barriers and requirements for adopters so that standards can diffuse quickly and achieve a status of cognitive legitimacy, standards also need to ensure that adopters create high levels of impact, thereby acquiring moral legitimacy. While the need for diffusion and impact occurs at the same time, they cannot be achieved simultaneously. We unpack this paradox and show that its salience for standard setters differs depending on (a) the growth trajectory of a standard and (b) the perceived intensity of the demands for diffusion and impact. We outline five response strategies that standard setters can use to tackle the diffusion–impact paradox and illustrate our theoretical considerations through a detailed case study of the UN Global Compact. Our paper advances scholarly understandings on how sustainability standards gain legitimacy and sheds light on the complex and inherently paradoxical nature of legitimacy. We derive implications for the literatures on sustainability standards, legitimacy, and paradox management.
Lien :